Skip to Main Content


Current Projects

What makes a mobile learning game enjoyable? Searching factors from Trivia Crack

 The purpose of this study was to explore what elements made a popular mobile learning game, Trivia Crack, enjoyable to students. This study included 148 students from a school in South Korea whose ages range from 12 to 13 years old. After playing the game for 10 days, students were surveyed on their experience with the game. Seven factors influencing students’ enjoyment of the mobile learning game were discovered in this study: ‘Attractive multimedia’, ‘Motivating rewards’, ‘Educative’, ‘Easy interface’, ‘Challenging’, ‘Evoking curiosity’, and ‘Allowing choices’. Implications of these results were discussed.

Exploring How Individual Traits Influence Enjoyment in a Mobile Learning Game

This study investigated individual traits as predictors of game enjoyment by including learning style, intrinsic motivation, collaboration skills, and computer game attitude as key parts of a model that also included game achievement. Results of correlation and regression analyses revealed that computer game attitude was the only variable to have a significant impact on game enjoyment. No correlation was found between enjoyment and game achievement. Other significant relations emerged, particularly the effect of computer game attitude on intrinsic motivation. The present study examined children’s enjoyment experiences in the mobile version of the Minecraft game. It also highlights the complexity of game enjoyment as it relates to mobile learning games.

Design of  Mobile Learning Environment based on gamification techniques

Gamification is the use of game mechanics, dynamics and frameworks to promote desired behaviors in non-gaming environments. This project aims to develop collaborative learning mobile system based on gamification techniques which are is based on various theories related to learning: Flow Theory, Social Learning Theory, Malone`s Theory of Intrinsically Motivating Instruction, Scaffolding and Self Determination Theory. It is expected to support learning environments with mobile learning system for more engaged and motivated learners.

Effects of different debriefing strategies on self-confidence and motivation levels of learners

Debriefing is the review and analysis of events that occurred in the game itself. Debriefing supports learners to compare their view of reality with the simulated reality, find differences and commonalities, and achieve a transfer of the acquired knowledge for reality. Present project aims to explore the effect of different debriefing strategies on students` motivation and self-confidence levels in educational games. It is expected to support learners during and after gaming process for transferring of acquired knowledge for reality.


Our Publications

Baek, Y., Xu, Y., Han, S., Cho, J. (2015). Exploring Effects of Intrinsic Motivation and Prior Knowledge on Student Achievements in Game-based Learning. Smart Computing Review, 5(5), 368-377.

Baek, Y., Uz, C., Park, H. (2015). How Debriefing Strategies Can Improve Student Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Game-Based Learning. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 53(2), 155-182.

Choi, B., Huang, J., Jeffery, A., & Baek, Y. (2013). Development of a Scale for Fantasy State in Digital Games. Manuscript submitted for publication. Computers in human Behavior, 29(5), 1980-1986. doi:

Choi, B., & Baek, Y. (2013). Rethinking fantasy as a contributor to intrinsic motivation in digital gameplay. In Baek, Y. K. (Ed.), Psychology of Gaming (pp. 83- 92). Nova Science Publishers, Inc.(Link)

Huang, J., Baek, Y., Cho, J.(2012). Technology-Supported Storytelling (TSST) strategy in virtual world for multicultural education. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 341, pp. 101-108.(Download)

Kim, C., Baek, Y. K., & Choi, B. (in press). Searching for instructional implications of social network games. Journal of Educational Technology & Society.(SSCI)

Choi, Beomkyu, & Baek, Youngkyun (2011). Exploring factors of media characteristic influencing Flow in learning through virtual worlds. Computers & Education, Vol. 57 (2011) 2382–2394.(Download)

Xu, Yan, Park, Hyungsung, Baek, Youngkyun (2011). A new approach toward digital storytelling: An activity focused on writing self-efficacy in a virtual learning environment. Educational Technology & Society, 14 (4), 181-191. (Download)

Our Presentations

Choi, B., Jung, J., & Baek, Y. (2013). In what way can technology enhance student learning? : A preliminary study of Technology supported learning in Mathematics Paper will present at the 2013 Society for Information Technology and Education Conference, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Huang, J. & Baek, Y., AERA 2013, “Exploring effects of Technology-Supported Storytelling (TSST) strategy in virtual world for multicultural education.” (Accepted:).

Baek, Y. (Guest Speaker), “Simulation Gaming (SGSC 2012),” Singapore. (Presented and/or Published: October 4, 2012). Peer-Reviewed/Refereed: Yes.

Choi, B., Huang, J., Kim, Y. & Baek, Y. (2012). Designing a Social Network Game: EarthQuest for 21st century learning. In P. Resta (Ed.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2012 (pp. 2488-2494). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.

Choi, B., Ko, M, & Baek, Y. (2012). Strategy for designing intrinsic educational games. Proceedings of Educational Media and Technology International Conference 2012 (pp. 545-554). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.

Huang, J., Cheong, D., & Baek, Y. (2012, June). Exploring the difference between Game-Based Learning instructional design and traditional instructional design from teachers’ perspective. Paper presented at the 2012 World Conference on Educational Media and Technology, Denver, CO, USA.

Baek, Youngkyun (2011). How to design intrinsically motivating games, a keynote speech at Defence Science Research Conference & Expo, 3 – 6 August 2011, Singapore.

Baek, Youngkyun (2011). Exploring Learner Variables Influencing Gaming Achievements in Game Based Learning, a paper present at Society for Informational Technology and Teacher Education, Nashville, March 7-11, 2011.

Baek, Youngkyun (2011). Designing Intrinsically Motivating Instructional Games, a paper presented at ARVEL workshop, American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, April 10, 2011.

Baek, Youngkyun (2010, March 29 – April 2). A Keynote Panel Speaker at SITE 2010–Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education 21st International Conference. San Diego.